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混养鱼塘表层沉积物中磷赋存形态初步探究
 

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混养鱼塘表层沉积物中磷赋存形态初步探究

摘要:
以上海郊区三口团头鲂混养鱼塘即池塘A、B、C以及水源D为研究对象,定期测定养殖期间水体中总磷(TP)、活性磷酸盐(AP)的含量,以及养殖沉积物中总磷及不同形态磷,包括交换态磷(Ex-P)、铝结合磷(Al-P)、铁结合磷(Fe-P)、闭蓄态磷(Oc-P)、原生碎屑磷(De-P)、钙结合磷(Ca-P)和有机磷(Or-P)的分布变化特征。实验发现,该养殖场水源水TP含量一直维持在稳定的较低水平(0.17±0.06 mg·L1),而试验塘A、B、C池水中TP含量则明显增加。水源水中AP含量亦一直保持稳定(0.11±0.06 mg·L1)且显著低于各养殖池塘,各混养塘池水中的AP呈波动且总体上升的趋势。养殖期间,池塘表层沉积物中TP含量变化不大,而水源沉积物TP变化波动性明显,各采样点沉积物中TP浓度分别是:0.63±0.11、0.67±0.12、0.68±0.11和0.77±0.13 mg·g1。池塘表层沉积物中总磷主要由Fe-P(18.03±6.01%)、Oc-P(22.82±5.34%)、Ca-P(27.48±8.15%)和Or-P(20.29±6.60%)组成,Ex-P(3.07±1.06%)、Al-P(7.62±3.11%),尤其是De-P(0.69±0.35%)仅占很少部分。养殖期间,混养鱼塘及水源沉积物中各形态磷含量呈波动变化状态,但并未表现出明显的变化规律。
关键词:养殖池塘;水体;沉积物;磷形态
 
Preliminary research on phosphorus forms in the surface sediments of polyculture fish ponds
He Lin1, Jiang Min1.2, Dai Xi-lin1,Li Shi-kai1
 (1. College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306
2. Research and Engineering Center on Aquatic Environment Ecosystem, Shanghai 201306)
Abstract:Three Megalobrama amblycephala polyculture ponds marked A,B,C and water source D were researched in the suburb of Shanghai. We monitored regularly the total phosphorus(TP) and reactive phosphorus(AP) concentrations in the water, contents of TP and various forms of phosphorus in the sediments, including the easily exchangeable phosphorus(Ex-P), aluminum-bound phosphorus(Al-P),iron-bound phosphorus(Fe-P),occluded phosphorus(Oc-P),detrital apatite phosphorus(De-P), calcium-bound phosphorus (Ca-P) and organic phosphorus (Or-P). The results suggested that TP contents in the source water of this farm were at a stable low level (0.17±0.06 mg·L1),while TP contents in the farmig ponds water increased obviously. Reactive phosphrous in the farming ponds kept changing and presented an increasing trend, while AP in the source water kept an approximately stable value (0.11±0.06 mg·L1)and was significantly less than that in the ponds. There were no siginificant variation about the TP contents in the sediments of the ponds, while significant variation did exist in the sediment of source water sediments. TP contents in the sediments of these four sampling points were 0.63±0.11, 0.67±0.12, 0.68±0.11 and 0.77±0.13 mg·g1. TP in the surface sediments of polyculture fish ponds were consisted of Fe-P (18.03±6.01%), Oc-P (22.82±5.34%), Ca-P (27.48±8.15%) and Or-P (20.29±6.60%), while Ex-P (3.07±1.06%), Al-P (7.62±3.11%), especially De-P (0.69±0.35%) accounted for a relatively small part. Contents of various forms of phosphorus in the surface sediments of polyculture fish ponds and water source kept a fluctuant state, but did not show any significant change rule during the culture time.
Key words:Polyculture farmig pond; Water; Surface sediments; Phosphorus forms
在过去的几十年间,水产养殖已经成为世界上发展最快的食品生产行业之一[1],我国水产养殖的发展速度和取得的成就更是令人瞩目。上世纪80年代以来,我国高效生态池塘养殖起步,短短三十余年,池塘养殖面积发展到300多万公顷,从业人口近500万人,养殖产量达5 000多万吨,产值过5 000亿元,居世界首位[1]。我国水产养殖业中池塘养殖占有重要的地位。池塘养殖具有相对封闭的特点,投饵施肥、生物排泄与死亡残骸等的长期积累,以及泥沙沉积等均会形成大量池底沉积物。据报道,精养鱼池高产鱼500 kg以上,每年沉积淤泥厚度可达10~12 cm[3]。自然和人为输入的营养元素除一部分以养殖品种输出外,至少有50%富集到池塘沉积物中[4]。一个养殖周期内,沉积物的沉积量可以达到1.85×105~1.99×105 kg/hm2[5]


 
 
 


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